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​Honoring the 2016 Nobel laureates with free access to selections of their research

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016

David J. Thouless, F. Duncan M. Haldane and J. Michael Kosterlitz

“for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter”
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016

Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart and Bernard L. Feringa

“for the design and synthesis of molecular machines”
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016

Yoshinori Ohsumi

“for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy”
The Nobel Prize in Literature 2016

Bob Dylan

“for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition”
The Nobel Peace Prize 2016

Juan Manuel Santos

“for his resolute efforts to bring the country’s more than 50-year-long civil war to an end”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2016

Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmström

“for their contributions to contract theory”



FREE ACCESS (till 31 Oct 2016) to Research Articles from Elsevier’s oncology journals :

Elsevier’s nursing & oncology journals are offering free access to research for #BreastCancerAwareness Month! Explore risk factors, prevention strategies & treatment options:

TONGUE ,  what it reveals?

Excerpt From Adventures in Chinese Medicine: Your Tongue Is A Map Of Your Organs.

-Jennifer debowsky

In Chinese medicine, the tongue provides a map of the organs. As you can see on the diagram to the right, different parts of the tongue correlate to different organs.

Liver and Gallbladder are represented by the sides of the tongue so, if the tongue is red in that particular area, it represents heat in the Liver and Gallbladder.

Therefore, pathological changes in a certain portion of your tongue can indicate pathological changes in the corresponding organ. However, the TCM view of organs is not identical to the Western view and you might misunderstand the meaning of the changes unless you are trained in tongue diagnosis.

For example, in TCM, the tip of the tongue represents the heart in an emotional sense. Practically, this means that when your tongue has a very red tip (heart in the emotional sense) it’s quite likely to be your Shen (spirit/emotions) that is disturbed.

Your tongue is pretty amazing when you think about the vast amount of information it offers. I hope you now have a greater appreciation of how important your tongue is 
and how valuable a tool it can be in uncovering what imbalances exist, both physically and emotionally.



The tongue has many relationships and connections in the body, both to the meridians and the internal organs. It is therefore very useful and important during inspection for confirming TCM diagnosis. It can present strong visual indicators of a person’s overall harmony or disharmony.

The tongue has a special relationship with the Heart, in that the Heart opens to the tongue. The tongue is said to be an “offshoot” of the Heart, or “flowers” into the Heart.

The normal tongue in Traditional Chinese Medicine has a light red or pinkish body with a thin white coating.


Channels/Meridians Reaching the Tongue

  • Heart Channel (Hand Shaoyin)
    – The Luo connecting channel connects to the root of the tongue.
  • Spleen Channel (Foot Taiyin)
    – An internal branch of the primary channel spreads over the lover surface of the tongue.
    – The tongue is penetrated by the Spleen Divergent channel
  • Kidney Channel (Foot Shaoyin)
    – An internal branch of the primary channel terminates at the base of the tongue.
  • Bladder Channel (Foot Taiyang)
    – A branch of the muscle/sinew channel binds to the root of the tongue.
  • San Jiao Channel (Hand Shaoyang) 
    – A branch of the San Jiao muscle channel links with the root of the tongue.

TCM Tongue Diagnosis Chinese Medicine

Tongue areas as they correspond to internal organs in Chinese Medicine

Tongue Diagnosis Method and Cautions

  • Lighting
    Sunlight will give the most accurate color of the tongue body and coat. If sunlight is not available, use a second light source such as a small flashlight to compare the tongue color to the original light source.
  • Position
    The tongue should be extended in a relaxed manner, and should not be held out for an extended duration.
  • Food and Drink
    Food and drink, such as coffee, green tea, and candy may alter the color of the tongue coating.
  • Brushed Tongue
    Some patients may brush their tongue to help freshen their breath or as an Ayurvedic practice. Ask the patient not to brush their tongue, at least the day of their TCM tongue diagnosis.
  • Seasons of the Year 
    In Summer, there may be more Dampness present in the tongue coating, leaving it slightly thicker and light yellow.
    In Fall or Autumn, the tongue may be thinner with a coating that is more dry.
    In Winter, there may also be more moist or damp presenting in the tongue.
    In Spring, the tongue should be normal.
  • Time of Day
    The coating of the tongue usually becomes thinner as the day progresses, while the color of the tongue body becomes more red and shiny.
  • Patient’s Age 
    In the elderly, Qi and Blood Deficiency is more common, so the tongue may present with dryness and cracks.
    Infants tend to have white thick coating that is easily removed, peeled tongues are also common.
    Overweight patients usually have more Damp and/or Phlegm and therefore their tongues may be larger and lighter in color.
    Thin patients tend towards redder tongues.

Tongue Body Color

Indicates the state of Blood, Yin organs, and Ying (Nutritive) Qi.

Normal Tongue Body

  • Pink or light red in color

Bluish Purple or Reddish Purple Tongue Body

  • Purple can indicate both Heat and Cold conditions.
  • A reddish purple tongue indicates Heat and Blood Stagnation.
  • A dark reddish purple tongue that is dry usually indicates depleted fluids due to Excess Heat
  • A light purple, bluish purple, or greenish purple tongue body color can indicate Cold and Blood Stagnation.

Red Tongue Body

  • A red tongue body is darker than the normal red, which is pinkish in color. It indicates either Deficient or Excess Heat.
  • A red tongue body with a thick yellow coat or swollen buds indicates Excess Heat
  • A red tongue body with a bright shiny coat, little coat, or no coating indicates Deficient Heat.

Red Tip

  • Heat in the Heart Zang

Scarlet Tongue Body

  • A scarlet tongue that is also peeled or shiny indicates Yin Deficiency, usually of the Heart and/or Lung depending on the area of swelling.

Dark Red Tongue Body

  • The red is darker and more crimson in color. This tongue body can indicate internal injury such as trauma (De Da), invasion of external evil in the Ying (Nutritive) and Xue (blood) levels, or it can indicate Blood Stagnation.
  • If there are red spots with a thin coat, this usually indicates damage to the Ying or Xue level.
  • If the tongue body also has cracks and there is little or no tongue coat, this usually indicates Deficient Heat due to internal injury.

Pale Tongue Body

  • Indicates the quality of Blood, reflecting Blood and/or Qi Deficiency or Cold.
  • If the tongue body is also moist, tender, and swollen, this can indicate Yang Cold.
  • A pale thin tongue body usually indicates Qi and Blood Deficiency.

Green Tongue Body

  • A green tongue body usually indicates Excess Yin Cold or the presence of a strong Excess evil with weak Zheng Qi. The Yang is not properly moving Blood and Fluids and there is Stagnation in the body.
  • Internal Wind may also present with a green tongue body.

Tongue Body Shape

The body shape reflects the state of Blood and Ying (Nutritive) Qi, and indicates Excess or Deficiency. Constitution can also affect the shape of the tongue body.


  • A stiff or rigid tongue is difficult to move (protrude, retract, side to side). This may cause speech abnormalities such as slurring or mumbled speech. A stiff tongue is an indication of Excess, and often one of Internal Wind.
  • If a stiff tongue is accompanied by a bluish purple tongue body, this usually indicates potential or impending Wind-Stroke.
  • If a stiff tongue is accompanied by a bright red tongue body, this usually indicates heat in the Heart and Pericardium disturbing the Shen (Spirit).
  • If a stiff tongue is accompanied by a thick sticky tongue coating, this usually indicates “Phlegm Misting the Heart”.


  • The flaccid tongue is the opposite of the stiff tongue. It is weak and lacks strength. It usually indicates Deficiency. When heat has consumed and damaged body fluids, they can not rise to nourish the tongue. This can indicate Yin Deficiency, Qi Deficiency and/or Blood Deficiency.
  • A flaccid tongue that is also pale usually indicates Qi and Blood Deficiency.
  • A flaccid tongue that is also dark red, dry, and has cracks usually indicates extreme heat injuring fluids.
  • A flaccid tongue body with a scarlet tongue body usually indicates Exhaustion of Yin.


  • This is a very large tongue body and can indicate both Excess and Deficiency.
  • A swollen tongue that is also pale can indicate Qi Deficiency
  • A swollen tongue that is also bright red and painful can indicate Heart and Spleen Heat. This could also be due to excess alcohol consumption.

Big or Enlarged Tongue

  • An enlarged tongue can indicate Phlegm, Damp, or Water Stagnation.
  • An enlarged tongue with a pale body and a moist coat may indicate Spleen and Kidney Yang Deficiency
  • An enlarged tongue with a red body and a greasy yellow coat may indicate Spleen and Stomach Damp-Heat.

Half the Tongue Is Swollen

  • A half swollen tongue may indicate general weakness of the Channels.

Hammer Shaped

  • This is where the front half or third of the tongue is enlarged at the sides.
  • A hammer shaped tongue usually indicates Spleen, Stomach, and Kidney Deficiency
  • This tongue is almost always indicative of a serious condition, and may indicate mental illness.

Local Swelling on One Side

  • Localized swelling of tongue with a normal tongue body color indicates Qi Deficiency
  • Localized swelling of tongue with a red tongue body color indicates Qi and/or Blood Stagnation

Swollen Sides

  • A tongue with swelling in Liver and Gallbladder area usually indicates Rising Liver Yang or Liver Fire.

Swollen Between the Tip and the Central Surface

  • This area corresponds to the Lung area and usually presents with a normal or pale tongue body.
  • This tongue is usually found in patients with chronic Lung and Spleen Deficiency, which tends toward Damp and Phlegm accumulation.

Swollen Edges

  • This tongue may indicate Spleen Qi or yang Deficiency.
  • If Spleen Yang is Deficient, the edges will also be wet.

Swollen Tip

  • When the very tip of the tongue is swollen, it usually indicates Heart problems.
  • If the tongue is also deep red, this may indicate Heart Fire.
  • If the tongue is normal in color or pale, this may indicate Heart Qi Deficiency.

Short and Contracted

  • When the patient can not show the entire tongue, it usually indicates a more severe disease.
  • If the tongue is also moist and pale, this indicates stagnation of Cold (bluish/purple) in the meridians or Spleen Yang Deficiency.
  • If a contracted tongue also has a sticky tongue coating, this may indicate Turbid-Phlegm blocking the channels.
  • If the tongue is also deep red and dry, excessive heat has consumed Body Fluids and stirred up internal Wind.
  • A short, swollen, tender, and pale tongue usually indicates Qi and Blood Deficiency.
  • A short or small frenum may be inherited and is normal.


  • There is difficulty in retracting the tongue.
  • This indicates interior Excess Heat, Heart Fire, or Phlegm-Fire Misting the Heart.
  • There may be numbness which is associated with

Front Swollen

  • Swelling towards the front one-third of the tongue may indicate Phlegm retention in the Lungs.


  • This can indicate that Qi and Blood are deficient and not able to properly nourish and moisturize the tongue. The tongue body will also usually be pale in color with Qi and Blood Deficiency.
  • A thin tongue that is also dark red and dry may indicate Yin Deficient Fire.

Tongue Body Features

Rough or Tender Texture

  • A tender tongue that appears smooth, delicate, and is possibly swollen indicates deficiency.
  • A rough tongue that appears wrinkled and rough indicates Excess.

Red Spots

  • Red spots may indicate Heat Toxins in the Blood or Heat Toxins attacking the Heart.
  • Red spots can indicate the presence of Damp-Heat in the Xue Level, where the internal organs are accumulating toxins.
  • Red spots on the Tip (Lung/Heart area) is usually not severe and may present in the beginning stages of illness.
  • Red spots on the entire tongue may indicate a more severe illness.
  • Red spots on the sides of the tongue (Liver/Gallbladder area) may also indicate a more severe illness.
  • Red spots on the back of the tongue (Kidney area) may indicate the advanced stage or chronic nature of an illness.

White Spots

  • White spots are usually due to Spleen and Stomach Qi Deficiency together with excess heat accumulating in the body. In this case, the tongue may also have sores and pus.

Black Spots

  • Black spots usually indicate Qi and Blood Stagnation or heat in the Blood.

Ulcerated Tongue Body

  • in progress…

Numb Tongue Body

  • in progress…

Loose Tongue Body

  • in progress…

Deviated Tongue Body

  • This is where the tongue tends toward one side of the mouth
  • This is due to Wind, either from exterior Pathogenic Wind or internal Wind-Damp patterns.

Moving, Lolling, Wagging, Playful Tongue Body

  • This usually indicates heat in the Heart and Spleen channels stirring up internal Wind.
  • In children, this may indicate developmental problems.

Rolled Tongue Body

  • in progress…

Teeth Marks on Tongue Body (Scalloped)

  • If the tongue body has normal color, this usually indicates Spleen Qi Deficiency
  • If there are teeth marks together with a swollen tongue, this may indicate Spleen Yang and/or Qi Deficiency.
  • If the tongue is also pale and moist, it is more likely Spleen Yang Deficiency or a Cold-Damp pattern.

Quivering or Trembling Tongue Body

  • Trembling of the tongue that can not be controlled may be due to external febrile disease or excess heat consuming Yin. The excess heat stirs up Internal Wind. The tongue body will be a deep red color and the pulse will be rapid.
  • If the tongue body is pale and trembling, this usually indicates a chronic condition of Qi and Blood Deficiency, where the tongue is not being nourished.
  • Side effects of some western medications (pharmaceuticals) may cause trembling of the tongue.

Sore Covered Tongue Body

  • in progress…

Tongue Body Moisture

Reveals the state of Yin and Fluids in the body.

Dry Tongue Body

  • in progress…

Slightly Dry Tongue Body

  • in progress…

Wet Tongue Body

  • in progress…

Tongue Coating

Indicates the state of the Yang organs, especially the Stomach.

White Tongue Coat

  • A thin white tongue coating is normal.
  • A thin white tongue coating can also indicate external Cold patterns when the appropriate clinical symptoms are present.
  • With a moist and pale tongue, a thicker white coating can indicate Damp-Cold.
  • A dry white coating can indicate Cold turning to Heat and starting to dry body fluids.

White Like Powder Tongue Coat

  • A white and thick tongue coating like powder indicates turbidity and external pathogenic heat. This coating will usually change to yellow after a short time if the patient is not treated.
  • If the tongue body is dark red, interior toxins may be present.

White Like Snow Tongue Coat

  • This may indicate exhaustion of Spleen yang with Damp-Cold in the Middle Jiao

Yellow Tongue Coat

  • A slightly yellow coating indicates Wind-Heat or Wind-Cold turning to Wind-Heat
  • A yellow tongue coat indicates an interior heat pattern. The deeper the color of yellow, the more severe heat. A burnt yellow indicates further accumulation of heat in the body.
  • If the coating is yellow and moist and the tongue body is swollen and tender, this indicates interior Damp-Heat or Yang Deficiency. In the case of Yang Deficiency, the tongue is showing false heat signs, as the Yin has forced the Yang to the surface of the body.

Dirty Yellow Tongue Coat

  • This tongue coating may indicate Stomach and Intestinal Damp-Heat

Simultaneous White and Yellow Tongue Coating

  • Can indicate a Shaoyang pattern
  • Can indicate a simultaneous Heat and Cold pattern, or a Cold pattern turning to Heat
  • Can indicate a simultaneous Interior and Exterior pattern

Gray Tongue Coat

  • This tongue coating usually indicates an internal pattern of either Heat or Damp-Cold.
  • A dry gray coating can indicate internal Excess Heat scorching Body Fluids or Yin Deficient Fire.
  • A wet or moist gray coating usually indicates Cold-Damp Stagnation or Damp-Phlegm retention.

Black Tongue Coat

  • Similar to the Gray coating above, but more severe.
  • The black coating usually develops from gray or a burnt yellow coating.
  • A dry black coating (usually with cracks) may indicate excessive Heat burning body fluids.
  • A moist black coating and a pale tongue body may indicate Yang Deficiency, Internal Excess Cold, with or without the presence of Dampness.
  • Both Gray and Black tongue coating can indicate extreme Cold (wet tongue) or extreme Heat (dry tongue).
  • Western drugs such as antibiotics can also cause a black tongue coating.

Half Yellow, Half White (Longitudinally)

  • This coating may indicate Heat in the Liver and Gallbladder

Yellow Root With A White Tip

  • This may indicate that exterior Pathogenic Heat is penetrating more deeply into the interior of the body.

Black in the Center, White and Slippery on the Sides

  • This may indicate Spleen Yang Deficiency with interior Damp-Cold

Tongue Coat Thickness

Thin Coating

  • Normal
  • In disease, it indicates the disease is either external or an internal disease that is not severe.
  • If the tongue coating changes from thick to thin, this indicates pathogens are moving to the exterior of the body and the disease is waning.

Thick Coating

  • A thick coating usually indicates more of an internal disease that is more severe.
  • It may also indicate that exterior pathogenic factors have penetrated more deeply into the body.
  • A thick tongue coating may also indicate retention of food.
  • If the tongue coating changes from thin to thick, this indicates pathogens are penetrating deeper into the interior of the body.

Peeled, Mirrored, Shiny, No Coating

  • With a mirrored tongue, there is no coating on the tongue. In less severe cases, there may be a partial coating on the tongue.
  • If the body of the tongue is also red, it usually indicates that Stomach Qi and Yin is severely damaged.
  • If the tongue body is also light in color, this may indicate that Qi and Blood of the Spleen and Stomach is damaged and Deficient.
  • If the tongue body is also red or dark, Stomach and Kidney Yin is damaged (body fluids dried up) due to heat.

Tongue Body Cracks

Short Horizontal Cracks

  • in progress…

Long Horizontal Cracks

  • in progress…

Transverse Cracks On the Sides of the Tongue

  • in progress…

Transverse Cracks Behind Tip

  • in progress…

Transverse Cracks

  • in progress…

Very Deep Ventral Cracks With Other Smaller Cracks

  • in progress…

Cracks Like Ice Floes

  • in progress…

Vertical Cracks in the Center

  • in progress…

Irregular Cracks

  • in progress…

Tongue Coat Root

Tongue Coat Has Root

  • The normal tongue coating has Root, which means that is “rooted” or attached to the surface of the tongue body. It can not be easily scraped off or removed.

Tongue Coat Has No Root

  • A coating without root rests on the surface of the tongue, but can easily be removed or scraped off.
  • A coating without root usually indicates impairment of Spleen, Stomach, and Kidneys.

Homoeopathy and Allopathic systems of medicines; the incomparable paradox.

“We must admit that we have never fought the homeopath on matters of principle. We Fought them because they came into our community and got the business.” Dr. J.N. McCormack, AMA, 190…

Source: Homoeopathy and Allopathic systems of medicines; the incomparable paradox.


An infant in the mother’s womb is as much in the hands and under the will of the mother as clay in the hands of the potter; who from it makes whatever pleases him….

The study of life is the study of beginning and its constant evolution up to the present moment of development. The spirit of life begins with the moment of conception. The moment of conception is not merely a moment of union of sperm and ovum but rather the moment at which the material as well as dynamic union of cell becomes endowed and animated with the dynamics, marking the beginning of life. It is the moment which marks beginning of a continuous process of development and introduces something new which is radically discontinuous with what has come before it.

It is widely acknowledge fact that pregnancy is a state associated with drastic physiological and psychological changes.

The genetic material which the child incurs from his parents and forefathers makes him predisposed to certain types of illness like there may be a predisposition to depression, obesity or schizophrenia yet these genes do not cause the malfunctions; it is environment which triggers them at earliest phase of life i.e. intra uterine life. in other words, the kind of experience the developing foetus has with his care givers and especially with his mother is gets biologically embedded in the child and is manifested in the later years of life. They got written into the child’s physiology because this is the period of human life when regulatory habits are being formed and the brain sets its automatic emotional and psychological controls.

There are many variations in prenatal environment and the pressures to one which one foetus is subjected may greatly differ from those exerted on other. Recent research suggests that the mother’s physical and emotional states and consequently, the prenatal environment that she provides have important influences on foetal development and adjustments of the child. The attitude of the parents towards the arrival of the child, their fears, beliefs , and expectations and the mother’s nutrition and general health, all effect the child’s progress. The alteration in maternal physiology that is related with pregnancy related hormone secretions can, for most part, be interpreted as biological adaptations to the needs of developing foetus.

In a fashion parallel to the physiological adjustments, pregnancy is also time of radical attitudinal and emotional changes. The prenatal environment exerts profound influences on the development of organism inducing changes which extends from early to later life. Prenatal stress in the early gestation exerts a larger impact on outcomes related to the length of gestation and foetal growth than stress in the latter part of gestation.
The best way to begin an examination of the prenatal environmental influences is to mention briefly all those influences which act as a stress to the pregnant female. These stresses to have an impact on the unborn child, the mother’s experiences must involve actions that will affect either the conditions of the uterus and placenta or the substances that pass through the placenta to the child.

Chronic maternal stress may exert a significant influence on foetal developmental outcomes. The effect of maternal stress may be mediated through biological and or behavioural mechanisms.

Maternal stress may act via one of the 3 major physiological pathways – neuroendocrine, immune/inflammatory and vascular pathways. Maternal transfers to the in growing foetus via one of these pathways and bring forth the changes in the immediate environment of foetus, thereby causing a great impact on the immediate as well as remote development of the foetus.
One of the proposed mechanisms involves the effect of the stress reaction on blood flow. Stress sets up a persistent fright/flight response. This response in part ,involves the diversion of blood flow from maintenance function (eg. digestion) to functions related to movement (muscle and heart) . Placental blood flow is similarly affected signifying negative relationship between maternal anxiety and blood flow to the foetus. Thus, the foetus may be deprived of oxygen and nutrients by this reduced blood flow, resulting in a broad range of developmental difficulties. The developing neurological system may be particularly sensitive to reduced blood flow during crucial periods of rapid development.

Another mechanism involves the transport of neurohormones to the foetus through the placenta. Neurohormones releases in response to stress (eg, cortisol) are necessary for normal foetal development. Thus, they can easily cross the placental barrier. High levels of these neurohormones alter neurological development by ‘’Programming’’ neurological structures in a way that is maladaptive. When these ‘’disturbing factors’’ act during the specific sensitive periods of development, they exercise organisational effect – or program some set points – in a variety systems. If these set points were programmed to fit environmental circumstances different from those faced by organism later in life, the organism is then hampered because of the programmed set points do not easily adapt to this new environment. These mal adapted set points constraint the flexibility of biological systems to adjust to alter environments and can result in poorly adapted physiology and disease.

The stress also implicates the development of embryo through the Hypothalamus Pituitary Axis.  The responses of the HPA have a variety of other effects, including a suppression of immune system functioning during pregnancy may be particularly detrimental to maternal and foetal health because the immune system is already suppressed as a normal part of pregnancy. This is because the developing foetus is defined by the immune system as non self but the foetus is not destroyed by the mother’s immune system because the uterus has protective features rendering it a privilege site for implantation. There is also a decrease in NK cell activity and a decrease in Interleukin-2 release along with the decreased proliferative response to antigens by T helper cells during pregnancy. As a result of these changes, viral, fungal and protozoan infections are often more common in pregnant women and the symptoms are more severe than they would be in non-pregnant women.
The maternal-placental-foetal neuroendocrine system is the primary physiological mediator of the effects of prenatal stress on adverse foetal outcomes because it constitutes the fundamental substrate for foetal growth, development and parturition, and because pathways through which alterations in other systems ( eg, immune , vascular ) produce pathophysiological consequences are mediated, in part, by maternal-placental-foetal neuroendocrine processes.

Stressors during the first trimester are most strongly associated with negative outcomes. One of the best studies of timings of stress was by Van den Bergh, who found that antenatal anxiety between 12 and 22 weeks of gestation had a strongest association with hyperactivity, frequent crying , sleeping and feeding difficulties and difficult temperament during the first seven months of life. The strongest effects discerned of maternal prenatal stress on the offspring were on the behavioural and emotional problems. The personality characters of the mother during the pregnancy affected the neurological development of the infant to produce a more difficult child. The strength of effect was stronger from stress at 12 weeks prenatal than 18 weeks, & resulted in double the levels of offspring’s hyperactivity, & emotional & conducts disorders. Also excessive stress in the 7th to 10th week of pregnancy – when the roof of mouth and bones of upper jaws are being formed in the growing foetus – can cause cleft palate & harelip.
Stress in the later pregnancy is less likely to cause any physical abnormalities. The children of anxious mothers in late pregnancy had high waking level of cortisol. However, stressful conditions (physical & psychical) in later months of pregnancy can result in preterm labour pains, premature delivery of the child and even sometimes miscarriage or stillborn baby.

Maternal stress and/or low birth weight has been associated with the following central nervous system and mental health alterations in the children in later years of life:

Elevated activity of sympathetic nervous system
Elevated cortisol levels
Increased risk of psychopathology, including anxiety and depression
Increased risk of schizophrenia,
Motor and social developmental delay.

Maternal stress and/or low birth weight has been associated with the following physical health alterations in the children in their future years of life :

Characteristics of the metabolic syndrome (body mass index, waist-hip-ratio, diastolic blood pressure, insulin plasma insulin, triglycerides, HDL & LDL cholesterol)
Higher total cholesterol in men,
Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

§284 fn 6th edition:
. But the case of mothers in their (first) pregnancy by means of a mild antipsoric treatment, especially with sulphur dynamizations prepared according to the directions in this edition ($270), is indispensable in order to destroy the psora – that producer of most chronic diseases – which is given them hereditarily; destroy it both within themselves and in the foetus, thereby protecting posterity in advance. This is true of pregnant women thus treated; they have given birth to children usually more healthy and stronger, to the astonishment of everybody. A new confirmation of the great truth of the psora theory discovered by me.

As the homoeopathic medicine given to mother affect the child’s health, similarly the stress factors to mother during pregnancy affects the health of the child.
Scattered throughout the history, one can find numerous instances which all point to the same fact that a child is able to endure all the experiences which the mother go through during her pregnancy,& can listen to her own thoughts even. Yet no one was able to explore this field any further until Master Hahnemann, a Philanthropist & a man of great wisdom, who was the first one to enlighten not only the darkness prevailing in the medical practices at his time through the lamp of rational healing art but also to bring forth in the lime light, the dynamic influences which the mother have on her child during the prenatal period.
So the real essence of development of an individual has to be perceived from the very beginning, the moment of conception. As the seed of evolutionary biographic development of each individual is sown at the moment of conception and from thence. Nurtured by the waters of its surrounding  environment.
Hahnemann by his artistic perceiving, auscultated the mother’s womb and perceived in its darkness some crucial sparks of prescribing light- the cry of unborn creature manifested through mother’s behaviour, desires, cravings & aversions , hate & love feeling , dreams & many more, to decade the facts & turn them into therapeutic measures.
As ever day is different from the other day so does every human being differs from one another. It is important to individualize the person; this can only be done if the physician takes the entire case unprejudiously from the point of beginning in the holistic manner. It is the process of perceiving as to how a patient as a person evolved and distinguished himself as a unique entity. So, for an artistic prescribing in childhood as well as in later stages of life, it is important to know the historic evolution & taking intrauterine life as an avenue for prescribing.

●Behavioral perinatology: biobehavioral processes in human fetal development.
Wadhwa PD1, Glynn L, Hobel CJ, Garite TJ, Porto M, Chicz-DeMet A, Wiglesworth AK, Sandman CA.

●Fetal programming of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function: prenatal stress and glucocorticoids
Amita Kapoor, Elizabeth Dunn, […], and Stephen G Matthews

●Glucocorticoid excess and the developmental origins of disease: Two decades of testing the hypothesis – 2012 Curt Richter Award Winner
Volume 38, Issue 1, January 2013, Pages 1-11
Rebecca M. Reynolds

● Organon of medicine: Dr.Samuel Hahnemann 6th edition , translation william boericke

Written by:
Abbas Kazim

Bakson Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital,
Greater Noida





-Constant pressure in left side of chest, oppressed breathing on least motion.
-Hoarse,dry,Croupy cough, loud, laboured breathing.
-Child grasps at throat, everytime he coughs.
-Very sensitive to inspired air.
-Stiches through chest.
-Cough dry,short,hacking,WORSE at night and after midnight.
-Tickling in chest aftercough,AMELIORATION lying on back.

-Cough sounds loose and patient feels sure that the next cough will raise mucus, but no phlegm is raised.
-Drowsiness accompanying the cough and Dyspnoea increases.
-Absence of expectoration.
-WORSE at night, in bed.

-Cough WORSE after midnight,lying on back,smoking.
-Expectoration scanty,frothy.
-Darting pain through upper third of right lung.
-Wheezing respiration.
-cough dry as from sulphur fumes; after drinking.
-Cough , Cold air, on becoming.
-Cough from drinking Cold drinks,ice cream, cold foods.
-Thirst for cold water in small quantities, drinks often.

-Tickling,short, dry cough, AGG. night
-Larynx very painful,feels as if foreign body were in it,with cough.
-cough aggravation fine dust in air.
-Child cries before cough.
-Cough AGG. Yawning
-Whooping cough with pain in stomach before attack.
-Cheyne-strokes respiration.
-WORSE heat of sun, after taking cold, afternoon,lying down.

-Complaints when warm weather sets in, after cold days, from cold drinks or ice in hot weather;after taking cold or getting hot in Summer; Chilling when overheated, from exposure to cold winds, Draft.
-Dry cough, with gagging, vomiting.
-Cough from entering COLD AIR TO WARM ROOM.
-During cough, holds chest with hands.
-Great Thirst for large quantities at large intervals.

-Hoarseness with pain in chest, aphonia Larynx sore.
-Cough with raw soreness of chest.
-Expectoration scanty;must be swallowed.
-Cough with pain in hip, especially left,
-WORSE in evening, BETTER drinking cold water.

-Whooping and spasmodic cough.
-MINUTE GUN COUGH ; Very rapid cough, and the attacks follow so closely as to almost run into each other,often preeceded by sensation of smothering and followed by exhaustion.
-Dry cough with great sensitiveness to air passage.
AGGRAVATION as soon as he eats, open air , CHANGING FROM WARM TO COLD ROOM.

-Whooping cough with violent paroxysm,which follow each other rapidly, is scarcely able to get breathe.
-Cough ceases only when large amount of tenacious mucus is raised.
-Constant tickling cough in children as soon as head touches the pillow at night.
-AGGRAVATION warmth, drinking, singing, laughing, weeping, lying down after midnight.
-During cough, vomiting of water, mucus and often bleeding from nose and mouth.

-Cough worse cold,wet weather,with free expectoration,tickling in larynx.
-Cough,hoarse, spasmodic.
-Whooping cough,with excessive secretion of mucus.
-Winter cough, dry, teasing.
-Cough after physical exertion.
-WORSE wet weather.from cold, rainy weather.

-Cough arises from irritation in Trachea.
-Cough on speaking, eating, reading, drinking, laughing, lying on left side.
-Cough on entering WARM AIR TO COLD ROOM.
-AGGRAVATION change to cold air.

-Cough after Measles.
-Cough,capricious hoarseness comes and goes, dry in evening and night; must sit up in bed to get relief.
-loose cough in morning with copious mucus expectoration.
-Pressure on chest and soreness.
-Urine emitted with cough.
-AGGRAVATION heat, after eating, evening.
-AMELIORATION open air, cold food, drinks.

-Dry cough from tickling in supra-sternal fossa.
-AGGRAVATED by cold air, deep inspiration.
-The patient has to cover head with bed clothes and breathe warm air to stop cough.
-Tough mucus in the larynx, cannt be hawked up
-Night cough of consumptives where there are sharp,stitchy pains through the lungs in early stages.

-Cough with yellow expectoration,thick,lumpy,purulent,profuse and greenish.
-Expectoration of little granules like shots , which when broken, smell very offensive.
AGGRAVATE Lying down at night.

-Hard, barking, ringing, metallic sounding Cough.
-WORSE deep breathing and excitement.
-Arose the patient out of sleep with suffocative feeling.
-No expectoration.
-No effect of cough on talking, change of environment.




World Health Organisation (WHO) Supports Homeopathy.

Dr. Jafer Sadiq MP

The WHO called for closer incorporation of homoeopathy into “western medical systems” “The development of research and evaluation structures, combined with a critical education in the discipline, would help to improve practices and define homoeopathy’s potential role in relation to the other therapies, conventional and unconventional, used in Western health systems.” Ref: Poitevin B, Integrating Homoeopathy in Health Systems, WHO Bulletin, 1999, 77, 2, 160-166., FULL TEXT


2003-2004: WHO issued a 40-page draft on homoeopathy, entitled Homoeopathy: review and analysis of reports on controlled clinical trials, claimed that the “majority” of peer-reviewed scientific papers published over the past 40 years “have demonstrated that homoeopathy is superior to placebo in placebo-controlled trials and is equivalent to conventional medicines in the treatment of illnesses, in both humans and animals.”

In addition, the WHO stated in their Journal “The World Health Forum” that “Homeopathy seems well suited for use…

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