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Air pollution increases the risk of diabetes

Dr KK Aggarwal

National President IMA
Air pollution has been dominating headlines in the past few days and has been at an all-time high in Delhi. The air quality in Delhi continues to remain in the severe category, with no respite.
There is increasing evidence for the role of environment in pathogenesis in many diseases with air pollution emerging as the largest environmental health risk globally. Exposure to the toxic air can affect the lungs, blood, vascular system, brain and the heart leading to significant adverse health effects and associated high overall morbidity and mortality.
Environmental pollution, with traffic associated pollutants, gaseous, nitrogen dioxide, especially high particulate matter PM 2.5 exposure, has been linked with risk of incident diabetes. Several studies have shown a positive association between long-term exposure to air pollution and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Individuals who have prediabetes are especially vulnerable to the effects of air pollution.
According to the WHO, the air content of PM2.5 should be less than 10 μg/m3 but in India the levels are always more than 60 μg/m3 as 60 μg/m3 concentration has been accepted as normal in India. That means that an Indian is already six times more exposed to PM2.5. However, recently, extremely high levels of PM2.5, crossing 400, have been recorded. The risk of future diabetes associated with exposure to 10 μg/cu mm increase of PM2.5 ranges between 10 and 27% (Endocrine. 2016 Jan;51(1):32-7).
Any particulate matter of less than 2.5 µm in size can get absorbed from respiratory system, enter into the blood. The exact mechanisms as to how air pollution causes diabetes Air pollutants are hypothesized to exert their effects via impaired endothelial function, elevated systemic inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress, all of which are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Jul;26(7):384-94). Increased oxidative stress leads to insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, impaired glucose tolerance, and, ultimately, type 2 diabetes.
India has the second highest number of people living with diabetes 69.2 million with a prevalence of 8.7%. China has the highest number of people living with diabetes with 109 million cases of diabetes in the year 2015 and a prevalence of 10.6%.
This scenario calls for high priority action to minimize the air pollution to contain the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes in the country.
The responsibility towards this end lies with each one of us as it does with the government.


Survey on Diabetic Patients in the Country

Source: Survey on Diabetic Patients in the Country

Dr. Hahnemann: Significant Dates of his life.

1755,  10 April – Birth

1775 went to Leipzig University

1777 Spring – to Vienna

1777 October – to Hermannstadt

1779 Spring – leaves Hermanstadt for Erlangen University

1779 August – MD Erlangen

1782 Dec – Marries Johanna Kuchler

1783 Henrietta born

1786 Frederick born

1788 Wilhelmina born

1789-1804 Unhappy wandering in Saxony

1790 his mother dies; First proving with Cinchona

1791 Caroline born

1795 Frederika born

1798 Ernst born

1803 Eleonore born

1804 settles in Torgau for 7 years

1805 Charlotte born

1806 Louisa born

1811 Spring – moves to Leipzig

1820 loses legal battle in Leipzig to dispense his own drugs

1821 June – moves to Coethen

1830 30th March – Johanna dies in Coethen

1834 8th October – Melanie arrives in Coethn

1835 18th January – 2nd marriage

1835 7th June – leaves Coethen for Paris

1835 21st June – arrives in Paris

1842 Feb – composes the final 6th Organon

1843 2nd July – Death
 “Dr. Hahnemann had a brilliant mind and developed a method in which there is no limit to the human life to save. Late Dr.Hahnemann was a man of superior intellectual nerve and a mean of vast saving for human life. I bow myself in awe of his ability and the great humanitarian work, which he created.”: Mahatma Gandhi 
Happy World Homoeopathy day!



World Health Day: Dismiss depression at your own peril

 Updated: Apr 07, 2017 15:15 IST

By Aayushi Pratap, Hindustan Times
“It started nearly a year ago. I would shut myself in the room and cry for hours together. I felt this strange urge to bang my head against the wall. Inflicting physical pain on myself was a way to get relief from the emotional pain.” This is how 26-year old Aarushi (name changed), a resident of Khar, who moved to Mumbai in 2014 for work, describes her recurrent episodes of depression.
“When I would start to feel better, there was revulsion, guilt and self-blame. In my struggle to find solace I have tried cutting my wrist at least thrice,” she adds.
Her parents, who live miles away in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, says she would cry frequently while speaking to them on the phone, but to them she only sounded homesick.
“She cried every day, but we blamed it on the long work hours and the fast life of Mumbai,” says her father, Paresh Shah (45), who admits he misunderstood his daughter’s emotional agony.
After nearly a year of this “abnormal living”, as Shah terms it, she sought help from a local physician, who directed her to a psychiatrist.
Shah is fortunate to have found a willing ear and medical treatment but many others, like 23-year old student Arjun Bharadwaj, who committed suicide earlier this week, aren’t as lucky. Arjun jumped off the 19th floor of a five-star hotel in Bandra while apparently intoxicated, after live-streaming a video of himself, which he termed a “suicide tutorial”, on Facebook.

He left several notes for friends and family, including one addressed to his mother that read: “Mom, this has happened because you never took my health problems seriously.”
Depression and anxiety-related disorders are most common of all mental health disorders, and affect women more than men, said doctors.

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), more than five crore Indians – 4.5% of the population – suffers from depression while more than three crore – 3% of the population – suffers from anxiety disorders.

Mental health disorders are classified into two types. The first type includes major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, which are largely genetic. The second category includes more common disorders such as depression and anxiety-related ones, says Dr Nimesh Desai, director of the Institute of Human Behaviour and Allied Sciences (IHBAS) in New Delhi.
“Unlike major psychiatric disorders, common mental disorders involve across both genetic and environmental factors. Depression caused by genetic factors does not vary much across cultures and socio-economic classes.
However, depression can also be triggered by socio-cultural and economic factors, such as the loss of a loved one, and stress at work and in relationships,” he said.
Stress of urban living

International studies have shown that depression is one-and-a-half times more prevalent in urban areas than rural areas, said Dr Desai. “The day-to-day stress of life, time pressure, work pressure, inter-personal relationships and pent-up frustrations all increase a person’s odds of having an episode of depression,” he said. Dr Dr Nilesh Shah, head of the psychiatry department at Lokmaniya Tilak Municipal General Hospital, Sion, said, “While some external causes are associated with depression, we still don’t understand the exact cause of it.”
Few psychiatrists

Mumbai, with a population of 20 million people, has just 300 psychiatrists, according to data from the Bombay Psychiatry Association. This translates to one psychiatrist for roughly every 6.5 lakh people.
“It is clear that we do not have enough psychiatrists, cognitive therapists and counsellors, according to international standards,” said Dr Vihang Vahia, a psychia


New Delhi: World Health Day 2017 will be celebrated on April 7. Each year, the World Health Organisation (WHO) selects a theme highlighting a particular priority area of public health. The theme for this year’s global health awareness day is ‘Depression: Let’s Talk’. According to WHO, India has the highest suicide rate among 10 South-East Asian countries and depression is one of the leading causes for this. Globally, it is the biggest cause of ill health and disability, says WHO. In South-East Asia region, a massive 86 million people are affected by depression. 
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On World Health Day 2017, here are some facts about India you need to know.

World Health Day 2017

In the age group of 15-29 years, the suicide rate per 1 lakh people is as high as 35.5.


World Health Day 2017 will be celebrated on April 7.

1 out of 4 children, in the age group of 13-15 years, suffer from depression


World Health Day 2017 theme is ‘Depression: Let’s Talk’


About one-fifth students in India have reported low levels of parental engagement 


World Health Day: According to WHO, depression is the biggest cause of ill health and disability globally


Though depression affects all people across all demographic groups, it is more common among teens, adolescents, youth, women after childbirth (postpartum depression) and those above 60.

World Health Day 2017: 86 million people suffer from depression In South-East Asia region.
In the last decade, cases of depression have surged by nearly 20 percent. According to WHO, depression is “persistent sadness and a loss of interest in activities that people normally enjoy, accompanied by an inability to carry out daily activities for two weeks or more.”
On World Health Day 2017, here are some suggestions from WHO to overcome depression:

Government needs to increase investment for people with mental health disorder. 

Introduce improved support system and scale up programmes with mental health disorders 

Better funding for research to facilitate better services 

Trained human resources for better mental healthcare.
(With inputs from WHO report)

Source: NDTV, written by: Ipsita sarkar, 7April,2017

AURUM – as a remedy


AURUM, the metal gold, which was pronounced as an inactive metal till now by the modern physicians, they have even excised it out of all their materia medicas, and deprived us of its mighty curative powers.
“It is incapable of Solution in our gastric juice, hence it must be quiet powerless and useless.”
This was their theoretical conclusion, in the medical art, as it is well known, such theoretical dicta have always availed more than convincing proof. Because they do not question on experience, the only possible guide in the medical art which is found on experience alone ; because it was easy to make mere assertions, therefore they usually preferred bold dicta, theoretical empty assumptions and arbitrary maxims to the solid truth.

Dr. Hahnemann in introduction to AURUM in his book MATERIA MEDICA PURA, quoted at least 17 eminent physicians of that time who deemed gold to be powerless and useless.

J.F.GMELIN (Appar. Med. Min., I,  P. 444) says: ” As gold is not destructible, nor resolvable into vapour, and hence incapable of union with juices of the human body,Therefore it cannot possess curative virtues.”
But they were proved wrong when the homoeopathic employment of gold as a remedy for numerous diseases, was proved by Dr. Hahnemann.

Dr. Burnett says: “For years I have tried to fix the date at which gold was first used as an anti syphilitic, but I must confess that I have been unable to do so. It is pretty sure that Hahnemann thus used it, as it is so evidently homoeopathic to some cases of this disease,  but it did not originate with this great man. ”

We are delightful to have gold as a remedy with great medical virtues,but have we ever explored how Dr. Hahnemann came to think of making a medicine out an quite inactive, not resolvable, non destructible (by gastric juice) metal?
The answer to this lies in his book “materia medica pura” chapter AURUM, where he tell us the physicians of his time so unanimously proclaimed the inertness of metallic gold, that he was led to use murate.Subsequently, he found that Arabian physicians has been in the habit of using the metal itself in fine powder and had praised its remedial virtues in those vert affection for which he had found the muriate beneficial. From the symptoms produced, he found that the drug was perfectly homoeopathic to the maladies for Which the Arabians had given it, and guided by the same principle of similarity, he found it in the 1st and 2nd triturations- curative in several other important affections and further he accepts and says that the assertions Of Arabians are not without foundation.

In PURA he praises 4 Arabian physicians :
1. JABIR IBN HAYYAN (GEBER) – 8th century
3. IBN E SINA (AVICENNA) – on commencement of 11th century
4. ABULKASIM/ Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (ALBUCASIS) – 12th century.

Western language scholars have generally defined Islamic Medicine as composed of two distinct and dichotomous traditions: Pre-islamic Galenic medicine and Prophetic medicine.
All of these scholars got influenced form The Prophet s.a.w.w in some way.
JABIR IBN E HAYYAN is one of the first name recognized in Islamic alchemy,  he was a pupil of IMAM JAFAR AL SADIQ A.S., the 6th Imam(who had his lineage linked to Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.w) , who is reported to have numerous treatises on alchemy and medicine (etc).

SARAFYUN he wrote an book The book of simple medicaments,  originally in Arabic.”simple” means non-compound: a practical medicine most often consisted of a mix of two or more “simples”. The work was written for physicians and apothecaries. In the book’s early part, Serapion the Younger classifies substances according to their medicinal properties, and discourses on their actions.The remainder and largest part of the book is a compendium of information on individual medicaments quoted from Dioscorides, Galen, and numerous named medieval Arabic writers on medicaments, with relatively brief supporting remarks by himself.Nothing about Serapion the Younger’s biography is on record anywhere.

ABULKASIM wrote a book Libro servitoris de prep. Med. is generally recognized as being the leading Muslim surgeon of the Middle Ages, and the Father of Modern Surgery.  Although advances in surgery are what Albucasis is most known for, and the invention of many different surgical instruments is attributed to him, his skill and expertise in the art of medicine didn’t stop there.  Albucasis was the first physician to describe an ectopic pregnancy, which was a fatal condition in his day, and he correctly identified the hereditary nature of hemophilia. Albucasis’ crowning achievement, his magnum opus, was a 30 volume encyclopedia of medicine and surgery called Kitab al-Tasrif, or The Method of Medicine, which he completed in the year 1000 CE.  It was translated into Latin in the twelfth century by Gerard of Cremona.  In the first two treatises of the Al-Tasrif, which were known in Latin as the Liber Theoricae, or Theoretical Treatise,Albucasis classified and described some 325 different diseases and discussed their symptomatology and treatment.  Book 28 of this 30 volume medical encyclopedia discussed the science of pharmacy, and was known in Latin as Liber Servitoris.

IBN E SINA who was influenced by AL BIRUNI, AL KINDI, AL FARABI, ABU SAHL ISA IBN E YAHYA AL MASIHI,  got all his lineage of knowledge from Prophetic Medicnes.
Al biruni- was influenced by HAZRAT MOHAMMAD S.A.W.W.,
Al Kindi – was a student of jabir Ibn e hayyan (who was students of IMAM JAFAR AL SADIQ A.S., the 6th imam, who is in lineage with Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.w.)
Al farabi – he was a student of Al kindi.
Al masihi was taught by Abu Mansur Hasan ibn Nuh qumri who was a Persian , living in khorasan.A little is known about his life and career. IMAM REZA A.S.,The 8th imam, was in khorasan that time.
Abu Mansur might have been one of the observers of Imam’s routine and procession and could have been a great student under Imam’s supervision!However, i’m unable to browse the archives!
In Prophetic medicine,  there are many traditions which prohibits eating and use of utensils made from GOLD,  probably because he knew the poisonous effects of gold caused by prolong eating in utensils made of gold(as today we see cases of diseases caused by prolong eating and using utensils made from aluminum)1,2   ; as observed by Goodman el at.2004, Tsoli et al.2005, Pan et al.2007.

Homoeopathy  is a system of medicine, which is based on law of similars. So, in homoeopathy, the thing which causes a disease, can cure the same disease, under certain circumstances ( Eg. when given in minute doses, triturated, successed properly etc.)

The Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt (People of the house of Prophet s.a.w.w.) , peace be upon them, were as concerned with treating the body as they were treating the soul.They were the physicians of the soul and the body, and people consulted them for their physical and spiritual illness.
Zarr b. Hubaysh said that Amir al-Mu’minin related four statements on medicine, which, had they been uttered by Galen and Hippocrates, a hundred piece of paper would have been decorated with their words.
Campbell said- The European medical system is Arabian not only in origin but also in its structure.The Arabs are the intellectual fore bearers of Europeans.
Dr. Hahnemann mentioned nearly 30 Authors(1698-1730) who praised Gold as a valuable remedy in various diseases.  Eg- Melancholy,  Weak Heart, Foul breathe, Falling out of hairs, Weak eyes, palpitations of heart, Difficult breathing etc.
DICCORIDES AND AVICENNA(IBN E SINA) employed gold as a medicine in metallic state.
(Dr.Hahnemann mentioned Avicenna and his use of gold as a medicine in his preface to aurum in materia medica pura)
PARACELSUS used it with sublimate as a universal panacea and called this calcinatio et solutio “solis”.


The pathogenesis of gold, our what gold does when taken in living body of healthy , was first given by Dr.Hahnemann, in proving of aurum in 4th volume of his Reine Arzeneimettellehre (1825) and again given with additions in his “Chronische Krankneiten (1835)”.

Dr. Taylor, F.R.S. of Guy’s Con Poisons in relation to medical jurisprudence and medicine, 3rd edition, London, 1875 , P-493), SAYS: “nothing is known of the effects of gold in human subject”

Would this eminent man and learned author be very much surprised to learn that, just Fifty Years before the date of his book, one DR. SAMUEL HAHNEMANN and 10 other man carefully tried the effect of large doses of gold upon their own bodies.
I Would say Dr. Taylor has nothing known if the writings of Dr. Hahnemann.
And Dr.Hahnemann says in preface to aurum, materia medica pura: “They were all wrong , and so are all the modern physicians.Gold had great, peculiar medicinal powers.”

Therefore, for the medical students I always recommend to read history of medicine; those who do not read history are tend to suffer from repetition of mistakes.

I would like to end with Dr Hahnemann words:

Dr.Hahnemann says- “Das Gold hay grosse,unersetzliche arzneikraefte”
( Gold has great remedial virtues, the place which no other drug can supply).

Reference :
1.Helen Suh Maclntosh, Professor at Harvard University; Is Aluminum cookware bad for you? –
2.Health risk of cooking in Aluminum,
3.Alaaldin M. Alkilany,Cathrine J Murphy, Toxicity and cellular uptake of Gold nanoparticles: what we have learned so far
4.Avicenna,  Canon Of Medicine, Book -1, A Medical history Of Persian and The Eastern Caliphate.
6.Samuel Hahnemann, Materia medica Pura, vol.1
7.Richard Hughes, A manual of Pharmacodynamics, Aurum
8.James C. Burnett, Gold as a remedy in Disease
9.Andrew J. Newman , Islamic Medical Wisdom (The Tibb Al -A’imma)
10.Mohammad Raza Kashifi,Tareekh Farhank wa tamdan islami

Written by:
Dr. Abbas Kazim
Bakson homeopathic medical college and hospital



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